Table of Contents

Introduction 1
Primitives as a Concept 6
Art as an Archaeological Concept 8
Cardinal Concepts. 9
Daily Time as a Concept 9
Distance Based on Light 9
Portable Artforms in Virginia. 10
Artform Dates. 10
Pleistocene vs. Holocene. 10
Spiritual Factors in Rockart 11
River Systems. 12
Conservation and Protection of Rockart Sites. 13
Bibliography. 14
Virginia and Area Rockart Sites, Portable Art, and Solar Observatories. 20
Geology: 78
Appendix A - Upland Boulder Set (Sun Dial and Day Clock) 168
Sun Dial 168
Sun Dial Mechanics. 170
High Noon (Solar Noon) Observations. 171
Observational Correction. 174
Sun Dial Conclusion. 174
Day Clock. 175
Appendix B - Winter Solstice Light Ray Site in Virginia. 177
Appendix C - Underground Limestone Chamber at Arkfeld. 182
Index. 193


This report is a complete listing of the rockart sites in Virginia, as presently known. It also includes rockart sites in neighboring states which have been investigated by the Survey. There is no complete public record of Virginia’s sites; thus, this report is needed for the history and archaeological communities. The listing includes:

·         Rockart glyphs and sites

·         Portable artforms

·         And, solstice sites.

Wm Jack Hranicky RPA

​ rockart glyphs pictographs petroglyphs

Virginia Fixed and Portable Artworks

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Only publication on Middle Atlantic rockart studies....

Wm Jack Hranicky RPA