A time telling device (stone solar clock) is defined as:

A standalone stone structure that is a prehistoric observational location for the observation of the sun’s motion through the sky. A TTD has the alignment and angles of its rock boulders which measure the altitude and sky placement of the sun (and/or moon) at any given time of the year. They are also known as solar clocks and sun dials.

Basics are:

Ancient priests knew how to arrange large boulders so that they preformed lighting and darkening (shadowing) on stone surfaces which indicated daily and annual clocks. They knew solar noon (high noon), both equinoxes, and both solstices. The constructed structures which gave them the physical evidences of these timely events.


The TTD was constructed as a ceremonial location for a cultural group with a priest to perform and lead religious ceremonies. Any solar event, such as high noon, equinoxes, or solstices, was treated as spiritual magic and was used to control the group’s behavior. With the TTD’s predictive capability, priests turned this knowledge into magic or the power to control the world. Only priests knew the actual mechanics of their TTD.

Cardinal Concepts

Wm Jack Hranicky RPA

​ rockart glyphs pictographs petroglyphs

This sun has physical motion across the sky which was observed and a constant by early priests who turned the knowledge into social and religious control of the groups. The following drawing is a model of the sun’s movements across the sky.

Solar sites and observatories

Knowledge of cardinal direction is as old as humanity. These were simply directions for human travel which they applied to their knowledge of the geological landscape. Anyone knew the direction of the rising and setting sun. For analytical purposes, these are assigned as east and west. Did these early priests have the concept of north and south? The direction of north was based on the nightly path of stars (groups) across the shy; however, certain stars did not change, namely Polaris.

These solar clock sites argue this knowledge, namely Spout Run, Blackberry Hill, and the Great Serpent Mountain sites in text. Each site has boulder configurations for the solstices and equinoxes. These solar clocks have channels between rock-boulders the have exact north/south orientations.